This mountain range begins from the border of Iran and Turkey or the eastern side of Ararat Mountain. Then, it continues from Azerbaijan regions of Iran to the southern side of Caspian Sea. Passing through Khorasan, it reaches the Hindukush mountain of Afghanistan. In the formation of these mountains, the volcanic activities were influential. The northern mountain ranges include three mountains of Azerbaijan, Alborz and Khorasan. Here we will discuss the Azerbaijan and Alborz.
The mountain is in the northwest of Iran and in three provinces of East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan and Ardebil. From west, it reaches the eastern end of Ararat and from east the Talesh shores. The Sefid Rood valley is the border of this mountain and Alborz Mountain. The mountain is relatively young, constant earthquake and the hot water springs are a sign of that.
Among the most famous peaks of this mountain, we can name Sahand and Sabalan. First, we have Sahand with 3710m of altitude. Sahand is in south of Tabriz city with a conical peak. It is a volcanic mountain with breathtaking nature. The lowland of the mountain has become a favorite spot for picnics. The remnants of fossils gave the scientists the idea that Sahand used to be an island or peninsula surrounded by a shallow sea. It also proves that its last explosion has been massive.
The other peak of the area is Sabalan. It is another volcanic mountain with 4848m of altitude. Sabalan is in south of Ardebil and its lava covers an area of around 1200 square kilometer. Sabalan has three peaks that erosion have highly influenced them. The highest of the three is Sultan Savalan, then there is Heram Daq and at last, we have Kasra. Sabalan is famous for the eagle shaped rock of its north face, the lake of its peak and its spiritual significance among locals.
Since volcanic activities are part of the formation of the Azerbaijan Mountain, there are many volcanic stones in the area. The stones are part of the attractions of the mountain zone next to hot water springs, the summit lake, the caves and castles and the historical sites of the area.
Alborz Mountains are like a belt covering the south of Caspian Sea with an estimated length of 600 kilometers. From west, it neighbors the Sefid Rood valley. Then, it continues to Armutli plain, 200 kilometers east of Caspian Sea. The height and width of the mountain varies from location to location. However, the highest and widest part of it is in the central part. The western section includes peaks of Lahijan, Deilaman and Mola Ali that also host the remnants of Alamut castle. In the central area, which as mentioned is the widest and highest part, we have Tonekabon, Tochal and Damavand. Damavand with 5610m is the highest mountain of Iran and the highest volcano of the Middle East.
Alborz Mountain have two different climate on its north and south side. The northern side is a dense forest while the southern part are barren and with scarce plant life. The mountains are the reason of this change, blocking the humidity and rain from passing to southern regions. Another interesting thing about the northern side is the small distance of sea and jungle. In just a 50 kilometers distance from the sea, we can experience the altitude of 2000 meters.
The hyrcanian jungle, the Caspian Sea, the highest mountain of Iran Damavand, several +4000m mountains, several protected area, skiing possibility, and the many caves are the attractions of the Alborz Mountain Range.
Iran northern mountain ranges are popular because of their many attractions. Visitors have a chance of enjoying adventures like mountaineering, skiing, caving, trekking in jungle, rafting, paragliding and so many similar activities.